What’s the difference between “laid” and “wove” paper? A quick guide.

laidpaper

Figure 1. Here’s a page from The House of Mirth on laid paper. Note the chain lines.

In bibliographies such as Stephen Garrison’s Edith Wharton: A Descriptive Bibliography, you’ll see information like this: “Typography and paper: 5 5/8″ x 3 3/8″; laid paper with vertical chain lines 13/16″ apart; 27 lines per page: Running heads: rectos and versos ‘THE HOUSE OF MIRTH.'” (76)

What is laid paper? There’s a more elegant explanation here, but basically it’s paper that has been created by drying on a form that has vertical and horizontal “chains.” When the paper dries, the parts where the chains were obviously could not absorb the paper pulp and appear lighter when you shine a light through the page.  Figure 1 shows the laid paper marks on page 136 from The House of Mirth.

wove

Figure 2. The same page with wove paper.

 

Wove paper (see discussion here) is paper that has been created in a form with brass (or other) wires woven together, so that no specific pattern is visible, except perhaps a watermark, which is made by putting a piece of wire with a logo or pattern in the form before the paper pulp is added. There aren’t any chain lines or pattern in wove paper. Figure 2 is the same page (p. 136) from a different printing of The House of Mirth, but it’s on wove rather than laid paper.

Why does it matter whether a book is on wove or laid paper?

The type of paper is just one of the many features used in, you guessed it, descriptive bibliographies so that scholars and book collectors will know which edition and printing of a book they have. In the case of The House of Mirth, knowing that Figure 1 has “laid paper” helps to determine that it is the first or second printing of the first edition. Figure 2 is on wove paper, and, since according to Garrison “Starting with the third Scribners printing, wove paper was used instead of laid” (80), I know that Figure 2 is from a third or later printing.

 

Disclaimer: I’m obviously not a rare books historian but thought this brief piece of information might be useful.

Which journals paginate by volume? Which by number?

mla8thFile this one under esoteric news you can use. Now that the MLA Handbook, 8th edition, pp. 39-40 has reverted to the old rule (If the journal is paginated by ISSUE, include the issue number. If it’s paginated by VOLUME, don’t.), here’s a reference list of some journals according to their numbering systems. Journals change their systems from time to time, so if you see an error, please let me know: campbelld@wsu.edu

Journals: Page numbers by volume or issue. This page lists which journals devoted to American literature number their pages by volume and which number them by issue.

Page numbers by VOLUME
African American Review / AAR
American Imago / AL
American Indian Quarterly / AIQ
American Jewish History
American Literary History / AmLH
American Literary Realism / ALR [Note: In 2001, ALR began numbering by volume rather than issue.]
American Literature / AL
American Quarterly /AQ
Americastudien / Amst
Biography
Callaloo
Children’s Literature Association Quarterly
College English / CE
College Language Association Journal / CLAJ
Comparative Literature Studies / CLS
Criticism
Early American Literature / EAL
ELH
European Journal of Cultural Studies
Explicator / Expl
Great Plains Quarterly / GPQ
Henry James Review / HJR
Journal of American Studies / JAmS
Journal of Narrative Technique / JNT
Journal of Popular Culture / JPC
Legacy
Menckeniana
Midamerica
Midwestern Miscellany / MMisc
Mississippi Quarterly / MissQ
Modern Fiction Studies / MFS
Modern Language Notes / MLN
Modern Language Quarterly / MLQ
Modernism/Modernity / MoMo
Monthly Review
Narrative
New England Review / NER
New Literary History / NLH
Papers on Language and Literature / PLL
Philological Quarterly
Philosophy and Literature / P&L
PMLA
South Atlantic Quarterly / SAQ
South Carolina Review
Southern Studies / SoSt
Studies in American Fiction / SAF
Studies in American Jewish Literature /SAJL
Studies in the Novel /SNTTS
Texas Studies in Literature and Language / TSLL
Theatre Annual
Twentieth Century Literature / TCL
Victorian Studies
University of Toronto Quarterly
Western American Literature / WAL
Women’s Studies / WS

Page numbers by ISSUE
American Literary Realism (pre-2001)
American Notes and Queries / ANQ
Arizona Quarterly / ArQ
boundary 2
College Literature / CollL
Critical Survey / CritSurv
Diacritics
Differences
Dime Novel Roundup / DNR
Dreiser Studies / DrSt (Became Studies in American Naturalism)
Edith Wharton Review / EWhR
Ellen Glasgow Journal of Southern Women Writers / EGN (*these are issues, not volumes)
Emily Dickinson Journal / EDJ
Frank Norris Studies / FNS (no longer publishing)
Frontiers
Hypatia
ISLE
Journal of American and Comparative Cultures / JAAC
Journal of Modern Literature / JML
MELUS
Modern Jewish Studies
Mosaic
Papers on Language and Literature / PLL
Rocky Mountain Review
Sherwood Anderson Review /ShARev (no longer publishing)
Shofar
Short Story / ShortS
Sinclair Lewis Society Newsletter / SLN
Southern Literary Journal /SLJ
Southern Quarterly / SoQ
Stephen Crane Studies / SCS
Western Humanities Review / WHR
Wicazo Sa Review / WSaR

To be added:


Excavatio
Centennial Review / CentR

English Language Notes / ELN
Journal of American and Comparative Cultures / JACC
Journal of the Short Story in English (JSSE) http://jsse.revues.org/
Literature and Belief
Modern Language Studies
Pembroke Magazine / PM
Postmodern Culture (paginated by paragraph)
Studies in Popular Culture
http://www.pcasacas.org/SPC/
TDR: The Drama Review

Novel: A Forum on Fiction

 

 

https://public.wsu.edu/~campbelld/journals.htm

Suggestions for Using Twitter

  1. Make your presence something that people will want to follow. You only have a few (less than 30) words for your description of yourself, so if you want a professional presence there, make those words count.
  2. You’re on Twitter basically for two reasons (1) to join conversations and add to them and (2) to provide value in the form of interesting information for your followers. You can do this through original information or posts, through likes, or through retweeting.
  3. A “like” helps you to save something for future reference and supports the original post; a retweet implies endorsement or information that you think others need to have. You can use the @ or hashtag # to call attention to the tweet if you think it would be useful or relevant for someone else.
  4. If you’ve just joined and are deciding whom to follow, try some of the following:
  5. Scholars in your area,
  6. Academic and research libraries and librarians, which often have great feeds featuring their collections as well as research grants. Beinecke Library, British Library, New York Public Library,
  7. Aggregator sites such as openculture or Century Past History.
  8. Groups–many scholarly societies have Twitter feeds (@SSAWWrs).
  9. Contemporary authors: Neil Gaiman and Margaret Atwood have active Twitter presences, for example.
  10. If you’re tweeting a conference panel:
  11. Be sure that it’s all right with the conference/panelists.
  12. Use the hashtag
  13. Don’t tweet individual tweets on the panel; instead, use a threaded tweet by replying to yourself. To post a series of individual tweets clogs up people’s twitter timelines.
  14. If there’s an unusual meme or piece of information, indicate where you got it. (This usually isn’t a problem if you’re retweeting, since the source is shown.)
  15. If you see a thread worth saving, you can use Threadreader to create it in one spot with https://twitter.com/threadreaderapp?lang=en
  16. You can choose to follow, unfollow, or mute people. You might discover that some people go on Twitter solely to promote themselves or their projects, so you might choose to follow them even if they never provide additional value in other ways.
  17. Follow junior scholars! A Twitter study a few years ago showed that users tended to follow those at or above their professional level, but that’s not the ethos you want.
  18. Set up your professional site (if WordPress) to post to Twitter and Facebook.

On visiting the Scribner Archives and being locked in a graveyard with Aaron Burr

houseofmirthThe Charles Scribner Archives at the Princeton University Library are a rich source for anyone doing research on Edith Wharton. They’re a rich source for research on other authors, too, for that matter, but I was there for Wharton and the edition of The House of Mirth I’m preparing for the Complete Works of Edith Wharton (CWEWh).

Charles Scribner’s Sons was Edith Wharton’s publisher at the start of her career, and she remained with the publishing house for many years until she moved to Appleton with The Reef, a break that was more like a breakup. As Hermione Lee describes it:

Charles Scribner never quite got over the divorce, and in 1921, still hoping to capture future novels,” he wrote sadly: “The loss of your books was the greatest blow ever given to my pride as publisher.”

Scribner’s published The Valley of Decision and The Joy of Living (1902),Wharton’s translation of Hermann Sudermann’s Es Lebe Das Leben, a 5-act drama.joyofliving, which sports a grayish-green cover unlike the familiar red binding used for most of her books.  Wharton supervised every aspect of the publishing process with great attention, and, when she finally moved to Appleton and they mimicked the familiar red Scribner’s binding for The Reef and Summer. 

 

Back to the archive: The correspondence between Wharton and various people at Scribner’s is voluminous, charming, witty, and businesslike. There are restrictions on photography in terms of number (no more than 10% of any folder, box, or collection) and use, however, and every image must be approved by a librarian before you take the picture, so I can’t reproduce anything here. Here’s a link to the finding aid, and you are sure to find something you need to see: https://rbsc.princeton.edu/collections/archives-charles-scribner%E2%80%99s-sons2018-07-27 18.37.48-1

How does Aaron Burr enter into this narrative? Well, Burr went to Princeton, which his father, Aaron Burr, Senior, had founded (as The College of New Jersey) and of which his maternal grandfather, the famous preacher Jonathan Edwards, had assumed the presidency when the senior Burr died when Aaron Burr was two years old.  I figured that Burr was probably buried in the Princeton cemetery, a short walk from the campus.

When my CWEWh colleague Carol Singley and I walked all around the cemetery after a day in the archives, however, we couldn’t find a way in. The graveyard is surrounded by a fence of iron spikes, and all the gates we saw were locked. We figured out which was Burr’s grave and left it at that.

2018-07-27 16.44.06-1The next day, I returned,  found an open gate, and went to the grave. It’s the white stone in front of the graves of his father (right) and grandfather (left).

A light rain had started to fall, along with some rumblings of distant thunder. I had stood there for a while, trying (with my rusty Latin) to read the lengthy inscription on his father’s grave.

When I went back to the open gate, it was locked, chained shut with a padlock. I wandered the perimeter a while longer, but all the gates were locked.

It would be a better story to imagine staying there as night fell and the thunder and rain intensified, and for a minute I imagined that was what was going to happen. Instead, I looked up the cemetery’s web site on my phone, called the emergency number, and was directed to an open gate that I hadn’t seen on either of the two trips. A prosaic rescue beats an exciting story any day, though, especially when the rain is really coming down.

I wondered after that why no one had put up a sign for clueless tourists like myself indicating either (1) that the gates were locked at a certain hour or (2) that there was an open gate to be found elsewhere. But Aaron Burr didn’t suffer fools gladly, and after teaching his “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” and other writings for so many years, I’m morally certain Jonathan Edwards didn’t, either.

 

 

Amlit site is moving to https://hub.wsu.edu/campbell

collageWSU has activated a new space for my Amlit and course sites at https://hub.wsu.edu/campbell. (Thanks, WSU!)

The good news is that now I can access and update the pages again–hooray!–and this will enable a whole new look for the site.

The bad news is that there are hundreds of pages to move & update, so it’s going to take a while. And–important–I can’t change anything on any of the current pages. One day they’ll just disappear. 

Since I can’t get in to put redirect scripts in the pages, WSU says that after everything is transferred, they’ll put redirect addresses in and then will shut the old site down after a while.

But this is progress!

Servers for my Amlit sites have moved; can’t make changes for a while

I just discovered (by not being able to connect via FTP) that the Unix servers where my American lit sites are housed have been decommissioned and the sites have probably moved to WordPress by WSU, which didn’t inform me about it.

I won’t be able to do any updates until tech support returns my calls and gets me set up with the new server, so if you see any errors–sorry!

Research workflow: more tips and trying out Tropy

Screen Shot 2018-06-30 at 3.17.16 PM

Figure 1. A screenshot of a collection in Tropy.

I’m posting some more research workflow tips   in order to remember the things that worked and that didn’t on recent research trips. There may be better ways, but here’s what’s worked for me.

 

One useful practice is to put the photographs in some kind of order immediately, while you’re still in the archive.

  1. After taking a set of pictures, about one or two folders’ worth, upload them to Dropbox and give the folder a name. I use the Box, Folder, and Title, since that information is useful later.
    1. Why photos and not .pdfs or scans? I’ve tried those apps, of which Scanner Pro worked the best, but it takes longer to get the photo centered, etc., and anyway, I can create the .pdf versions later. If I were working with more typewritten materials where OCR is a possibility, Scanner Pro would be fine.
  2. In Preview, I then add the folder name to each item before the image name
    Screen Shot 2018-07-03 at 7.12.41 AM

    Figure 2. I keep the image numbers in there until I can rename the files.

    by using Select – Rename .  This is just a placeholder until I can add a more meaningful name. Although it’s a good idea to get the folder information in the picture itself (see previous post), that might not be possible all the time. This immediate identification ensures that there aren’t any mystery images.

  3. Screen Shot 2018-07-03 at 6.59.23 AM

    Figure 3. These really should follow the XML date conventions.

    Later, when the archive is closed or when I have time, I give them a more descriptive name and, if there’s time, transcribe them. This picture is from is an older batch; more recently, all the files follow the xml date convention YEAR-MONTH-DAY since there’s no confusion about that and sorting is easier.

  4. For ease of reading, you can make a .pdf. In Preview, open a group of files, select them using the Thumbnail pane, and choose File – Print – Print as .pdf. (I have had better luck with this than with Export as PDF, which sometimes will only do one image.) Another tip: if it takes Preview a long time to make this .pdf, the file is invariably too huge to manage. For some reason, if you try the process again (select, file, save to .pdf) it will often go very quickly and result in a smaller file size. It’s pretty random.

This brings me to Tropy, which is a great free app for organizing research materials and. The image at the top of this post is the material in Figure 3 organized in Tropy.

Screen Shot 2018-07-03 at 7.45.01 AM

Figure 4. One of the items in Tropy, opened to show the transcription as well as the image.

You can read all about it at the Tropy link, but what Tropy does is to provide a space for metadata AND the image AND the transcription all in one place, which is pretty great.

You import the photos into Tropy (it doesn’t do .pdf files) and then add the information. To put photos together, as here, you can drag and drop them onto the first page. You can also batch-input metadata such as collection names, etc., by highlighting and adding the information to the whole group.

Also great: with the image open, it’s much easier to transcribe in the Notes section (or simply to write notes about the information if you aren’t transcribing it). You can even use the dictation feature (fn-fn, as in Word) to read the letter into the Notes section.

It’s wonderful not to have to look back and forth between the transcription and the image, or to be able to read a lot of pages at once without creating a .pdf.

Features that Tropy doesn’t have so far that would be extremely useful:

  1. Ability to sync with Dropbox so that you can use the file across multiple computers. You can back up and copy the .tpy file, but when you open it in a different computer, you won’t see the images.
  2. Ability to output text in something other than .jsonld format. I can see that this is a hugely useful format, but if you (like me) aren’t experienced with .json  and want to export your notes and transcriptions as text, it would be nice to have that option.

That said, Tropy’s still an elegant way to organize and work with your files, especially for a discrete collection like a cache of letters.